World Down Syndrome Day is observed annually on March 21. Children with Down syndrome struggle with one or more disabilities throughout their lives due to the genetic disease that affects them from birth. 


Reasons why people have Down Syndrome

Down syndrome is caused by the presence of an extra chromosome at birth. Chromosomes are gene bundles, and your body depends on having the appropriate amount of them. Each cell in the body contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46. A person with Down syndrome has an extra copy of chromosome 21, therefore their cells have 47 chromosomes instead of 46. This alters the development of their brain and body and also causes a variety of disorders that affect both mentally and physically in people with Down syndrome.

Everyone can be affected by Down syndrome. It is a genetic issue that does not occur as a result of anything the parents did prior to or during pregnancy. Most cases of Down syndrome are chance occurrences (sporadically). At conception people do not normally acquire Down syndrome in an autosomal dominant or recessive form.

Types of Down Syndrome

21 Trisomy

This is the most frequent kind, in which each cell in the body contains three copies of chromosome 21 rather than two.

Translocation Down Syndrome

Each cell in this kind either contains a complete extra chromosome 21 or a portion of one. Yet rather than being on its own, it is linked to another chromosome.

Mosaic Down syndrome

This is the most uncommon kind, with only a few cells carrying an additional chromosome 21. Children with mosaic Down syndrome may have the same characteristics as other Down syndrome individuals. Yet, because of the presence of some (or many) cells with a typical number of chromosomes, they may have fewer symptoms of the illness.


Down Syndrome Diagnosis

A newborn baby's look may lead a doctor to suspect Down syndrome in the infant. A blood test called a karyotype test, which aligns the chromosomes and identifies the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21, can confirm this. Screening tests and diagnostic tests are the two main categories of testing available to identify Down syndrome during pregnancy. A screening test can inform the expectant mother and her healthcare practitioner of the likelihood of Down syndrome in the baby. Diagnostic tests can usually tell whether a baby will have Down syndrome or not, but they can also put the mother and growing infant at greater danger. Nobody can foresee the full effects of Down syndrome on a baby; neither screening nor diagnostic techniques can do so.

Can Down Syndrome be treated?

Down syndrome is a chronic condition that lasts a lifetime. Early intervention services can typically assist babies and children with Down syndrome improve their physical and intellectual abilities. A child with Down syndrome will most likely be cared for by a multidisciplinary team of health professionals, including but not limited to physicians, special educators, speech therapists, occupational therapists, physical therapists, and social workers. All professionals who work with kids who have Down syndrome ought to be encouraging and stimulating.

Individuals who have Down syndrome are more likely to have certain illnesses and disorders than people who do not. Many of these linked diseases may necessitate immediate therapy upon birth, periodic treatment throughout childhood and adolescence, or long-term treatment throughout life.