On 26th Jan, 2021 India celebrated its 72nd Republic Day. Republic day is celebrated to honour the date on which the Indian Constitution came into effect. Constitution of India lays the land of the law and lays out fundamental political code, duties of government institutions, powers, fundamental rights and fundamental duties of citizens of India. Though most people know what are their fundamental rights and duties in this video we explain in detail all the fundamental duties of a Indian Citizen.
When the Indian Constitution was written it has 7 fundamental rights that were based on the fundamental rights noted in the US constitution. However later on the right to property was removed and as of now Indian constitution has 6 fundamental rights for Indian Citizens.
Right to Equality is one of the primary guarantees of the Constitution. It prevents any discrimination based on race, religion, caste, sex, place of birth, or any of them. These rights are defined in Articles 14-16 of the Indian Constitution. Article 17-18 defines the philosophy of scoial equality.
As part of Right to Equality Article 14 guarantees equality before law as well as equal protection to all people in India and treating all people in similar circumstances in the same manner.
Article 15 of constitution prohibits discrimination on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth, or any of them. However, Article 15 allows state to make special provisions for women, children, socially and educationally backward classes of citizens. That is the reason why special provisions are made by states for Scheduled Casts and Scheduled Tribes. As Article 15 prevents discrimination, Article 16 grantees equal opportunities in basic rights such as employments. It prevents states and govt discriminate people on the basis of race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, residence or any other grounds for discrimination. Similarly Article 17 abolised untouchability in any form and Article 18 does not allow state from giving any special titles to people. Eg nobility or maharajas. The only exceptions military or academic titles.
Articles 19 to 22 of constitution guarantee right to freedom for people of India. Article 19 guarantees freedom to speech and expression, freedom to protest without arms, freedom of association, freedom of movement throughout India and the freedom to live and settle in any part of India. Article 19 also guarantees people the freedom to work in any part of India. Article 19 also, allows restrictions of these rights in some cases such as national security, decency, morality, contempt of court and such cases. In such situations states have the power to restrict the right to freedom.
Article 23 and Article 24 prevent the exploitation of people of India by state. Especially the weaker sections of society. These articles prevent things like human trafficking and forced labour.
Indian is a secular state and the right to practice and follow the religion of once choice in guaranteed in Articles 25 to Article 28 of Indian constitution. There is not state or national religion and government is required to treat all religion equal with impartially and neutrally. Freedom to religion allows right to preach, practice and propagate any religion of their choice.
Article 29 and Article 30 of Indian constitution protects the culture of India. It allows people of India to presever their cultural, linguistic and religious minorities. The government cannot impose any external culture on people of India, especially the minorities. It also prevents discrimination of people on the basis of their religion and culture. Article 30 also gives the right to minority groups to run their educational institutions of their choice to develop their culture.
Finally the last fundamental rights of the constitution gives power to move to supreme court if any of the above mention rights are misused or not enforceable. The article gives the Supreme Court’s power to issue order or writs for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights.
These were our fundamental rights defined in the Indian Constitution and hope this video and article have enlightened you about the fundamental rights defined by our forefathers in our constitution.